Vertical linking is the practice of requiring customers to purchase related products or services from the same company.  For example, a company could require that its automobiles be serviced only by its own dealers. To stem this, many jurisdictions require that guarantees not be lifted by an external interview. See z.B the Magnuson-Moss Warranty Act in the United States. „Binding Agreement.“ Merriam-Webster.com dictionary, merriam weaver, www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/tying%20agreement. Called November 27, 2020. Horizontal pooling is the practice of requiring consumers to pay for a product or service unrelated to the desired product.  A hypothetical example would be that Bic only sells his pens with Bic lighters. (However, a company may offer a limited free item with a different purchase than the promotional action.) When a seller asks buyers to purchase a second product or service as a prerequisite for obtaining a first product or service, it may be contrary to federal cartel laws. It is called a binder agreement or a binder agreement. Take the example of a car manufacturer that pooled the tires sold with the manufactured car and a second car manufacturer that linked the purchase of a car to the requirement to buy a particular brand of toolbox. Other toolbox manufacturers would quickly indicate that there is already a clean and robust market for toolboxes. If tyre manufacturers are not in a position to make this argument, it is because tyres, regardless of the brand, are necessary to market a car, and without cars, there is no market for tyres.
In recent times, in light of changes in business practices related to new technologies, traditional ideas around sewing have been reviewed and the assumptions of the previous examples could be debated. In a binder agreement, the product that Vendee actually wishes to buy is referred to as a „binder“, while the additional product that Vendee must purchase to conclude the sale is referred to as a „tied product“. Typically, the binding product is a desirable good, highly demanded by sellers of dense in a given market. The linked product is usually less desirable, of lower quality or otherwise difficult to sell. For example, film distributors often link the sale of popular videotapes to the purchase of second-class films that, due to lack of demand, pile up in their warehouses. . . .