Empirical studies on voluntary respect are relatively new and are gradually multiplying and fuelling theoretical discussions. Some documents, such as Arora and Cason (1995), examine the selection of companies that participate in voluntary, state-subsidized overcomponation programs, such as 33/50, sponsored by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. They find that companies that emit high toxic emissions are more likely to participate in this program. They see this result as a sign of hope, as these companies have the greatest potential to reduce emissions. Because of its carcinogenic potential and low exposure limits, acrylamide is considered a potential health hazard (JECFA, 2005). For this reason, in many countries, food authorities have asked food producers to take steps to limit the formation of acrylamide in their products (Amrein, Andres, Escher, Amado, 2007). In 2002, the German concept of minimisation of acrylamide was introduced by the Federal Office for Consumer Protection and Food Safety (BVL). The concept was based on a voluntary agreement between the BVL, the Federal Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Consumer Protection (BMELV), federal authorities and industry stakeholders. The aim of the concept of minimisation is to gradually reduce the acrylamide content of foodstuffs by avoiding training. This requires the development of reduction methods that reduce the acrylamide content of foods without altering the properties of food (Gobel-Kliemant, 2007).
Voluntary agreement between countries, institutes and individuals on what a product or process is, what it should be and what it should do or what it should do is important. To this end, standards are a key element of the unified European market. But of course, the idea of standardization can also be used within a multi-institutional group, because standardization facilitates communication between different participants or stakeholders who are working in a single process or carrying out a project (for example. B Crime prevention).